Coastal Zone Management

The management and control of activities taking place in the coastal zone are governed under numerous Acts; with activity-based regulations; norms and standards; and guidelines having been promulgated under these Acts.

Coastal zone activities and the acts which govern these

Key Activity Key Act/s Lead Agency
Management of coastal access land ICM Act Local Government
Land reclamation ICM Act National Government
Coastal leases and concessions ICM Act National Government
Unlawful structures ICM Act National, provincial and local government
Off-road vehicles ICM Act National government
Boat launching sites ICM Act National and Provincial Government
Effluent discharges into coastal waters ICM Act National government
Dumping at sea ICM Act National Government
Incineration at sea Prohibited under the ICM Act (Section 70), except under specific conditions as specified. National government
Environmental Impact Assessment NEMA National Provincial and Local government
Biodiversity and protected areas management  Biodiversity Act (10 of 2004) National, provincial and local government
Protected Areas Act (57 of 2003) 
Marine protected areas Protected Areas Amendment Act (21 of 2014) National and provincial government
Sensitive Coastal Areas Environmental Conservation Act (73 of 1989) National government
Heritage area management World Heritage Convention Act (49 of 1999) National government
 National Heritage Resources Act (25 of 1999)
Prevention and combating pollution from ships, including solid waste (garbage) and ballast water International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships Act (2 of 1986)  National government
 South Africa Maritime Safety Authority Act (5 of 1998)
Marine Pollution (Control and Civil Liability ) Act (of 1981)
Merchant Shipping Act (57 of 1951)
Solid waste management (land-based) Waste Act (59 of 2008) 
Atmospheric pollution  Air Quality Act (39 of 2004) National government
Control of scuba diving, whale watching and shark cage diving and other protected or threatened species Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA) (18 of 1998, amended 2000)  National government
 Transkei Environmental Decree and legislation controlling whales, sharks sea birds
State assets in coastal zone, including 12 fishing harbours Government Immovable Asset Management Act (19 of 2007) National government
State Land Disposal Act (48 of 1961)
 MLRA
Fisheries Management  MLRA National government
Sea Fishery Act (12 of 1988)
Marine aquaculture or harvesting of marine living resources (sea-based) MLRA National government
Harvesting of coastal resources (land-based) Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (43 of 1983)  National government
 National Forest Act (84 of 1998)
Port management National Ports Act (12 of 2005) National government
International Health Regulations Act (28 of 1974)
Shipping  Marine Traffic Act  National government
SAMSA Act
Freshwater flows (quantity and water quality) into coastal zone  National Water Act (36 of 1998) National government
Mining  Minerals and Petroleum Resource Development Act (MPRDA) (28 of 2002)  National government
Oil and gas exploration  MPRDA National government
Coastal infrastructure (land-based)  Municipal Systems Act  National, provincial and local government
National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act (103 of 1977 amended 1982, 1984, 1989, 1995, 1996)
Spatial planning and land use management Act (16 of 2013)
Provincial Planning Acts 
Recreational Water Quality  National Health Act (61 of 2003)  National government
Renewable energy activities  National Energy Act (34 of 2008) National government